Rutherford’s Theological Foes

Although reductionism is always a danger in historical theology I think Kim’s twofold classification of Samuel Rutherford’s opponents is helpful:

Rutherford’s theological foes can be categorized into, broadly speaking, two groups: ‘Arminians’ who ‘enthrone Nature, and extol proud merit, and abase Christ and free grace’, and ‘Antinomians’ who ‘turn man into a block and make him a mere patient in the way to heaven’. Here, Rutherford’s classification of his opponents grasps the ‘Papist’ and ‘Socinian’ within ‘Arminianism’, and ‘the Familist, libertine’ within ‘Antinomianism’.

Kim, S.D. “Time and Eternity: A Study in Samuel Rutherford’s theology, with Reference to His Use of Scholastic Method,” (Ph.D. diss., Aberdeen University, 2002), 21.

This is true for Durham as well, the vast majority of his polemical writings are directed against ‘the Arminians’ and ‘the Antinomians’.  For more on Durham’s theological opponents see:


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